From the moment new aircraft are thought of, engineers are working out how to make them more efficient. In fact, aviation is one of the most technologically-advanced and innovative sectors in the world.
Unlike ground vehicles, which don’t need to be optimised for efficiency to the same extent as aircraft because they can refuel often, long-distance aircraft must carry all their fuel with them. Fuel is expensive, heavy and takes up a great deal of storage room. Its weight can limit the range of an aircraft and it needs to be stored in tanks which affect the wing size and the payload able to be carried. At the same time, the aviation industry is doing all it can to limit its environmental impact.
Each new generation of aircraft has double-digit fuel efficiency improvements, even up to 25% more fuel efficient than the one it replaces. This has led to today’s modern aircraft producing well over 70% less CO2 per seat than the first jets in the 1950s. But there is more work to do.
New technologies on the horizon have the potential to significantly decrease greenhouse gas emissions from aviation, and solutions that are being implemented today also promise other savings. Even small savings here-and-there offer significant benefits in total.
Being able to operate efficiently is critical to the future of the aviation industry, not just for environmental reasons but also for financial ones, especially since fuel makes up over 30% of airline operating costs.
To formalise and compliment the market-driven evolution in aircraft fuel efficiency, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) agreed on a CO2 emissions standard in February 2016, which will apply to all new aircraft designs from 2020 and newly-built existing models of aircraft from 2023.
Kenya Railways Corporation is developing a new standard gauge railway (SGR) line for passengers and cargo transportation between Mombasa, the largest port in East Africa, and Nairobi, the capital city of Kenya.
The new railway line constitutes the first phase of the SGR project that aims to connect Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda and South Sudan.
The Mombasa-Nairobi SGR is the biggest infrastructure project in Kenya since independence. It will shorten the passenger travel time from Mombasa to Nairobi from more than ten hours to a little more than four hours. Freight trains will complete the journey in less than eight hours.
TRAINING | NUTRITION | RESULTS
Whole body fitness provides weight loss, health and fitness training programs for all ages or fitness levels. Using the latest nutrition and conditioning sciences with our aggressive evaluation based method we’ll create complete short and long term fitness strategies to maximize your weight loss process.
Enjoying a balanced diet is a really important part of leading a healthy lifestyle. The UK Department of Health recommends that men consume roughly 2500 calories a day, while women should consume around 2000 calories.
While it’s important to eat a varied diet, including 5 portions of fruit and veg a day, there’s also room for a little of what you enjoy. Whether it’s a slice of cake on a Sunday or Demerara in your cappuccino, the key is making it part of a varied diet.
Current scientific thinking is that approximately half (45–60%) of our energy intake should come from carbohydrates (these include sugars and starches). The rest of the diet should be made up of protein (12–15%) and fat (between 30–35%, as % of energy).
The Guideline Daily Amount of sugars for an adult is 90g for women and 120g for men. In the last decade, there has been a reduction of almost 12 per cent per capita in consumption of total sugars in the UK. Sugar has four calories per gram, which compares to protein (four calories), fat (nine calories), and alcohol (seven calories).
Sweetness is the only taste the body is programmed to respond positively to. It improves the flavour of foods and often widens the range of foods people will eat, such as high fibre breakfast cereals and sour or bitter fruits.
Obviously exercise is also important. It can help you feel more energetic and also releases endorphins making you feel happier. In fact, it’s recommended that we all exercise 5 times a week for at least 30 minutes.
As sugar is a natural source of carbohydrate it can help contribute to a healthy lifestyle. However, if you’re watching those extra calories, we’ve developed a range of lower Calorie sweetening products to help you.